Sterling Hill, NJ is famous for it's Zinc and Iron Deposits, but it depends on what you are looking for. Minerals in the true since of the word exclude metals (primarily southwest - think Nevada and silver), but areas such as West Virginia have significant coal deposits. There are also significant salt deposits in Utah, and Iron is quite plentiful in Kentucky.
If you are interested in the grand-daddy of all mineral deposits, think Australia. Most of the center is dry and ripe for mineral excavation. There you can find, gold, silver, uranium, iron, calcium carbonate, and my favorite, diamonds. The largest diamond mine in the world is the Argyle Mine in Australia. Diamond also happens to be hardest mineral in the world. Not sure if I can provide a link here or not, so I won't but just google Argyle Mine and you'll find an amazing treasure trove of all sorts of minerals.