The top three are very hard and I think Quartz. The chemical formula for Quartz is SiO2. It is also the chemical formula for flint, chert, chalcedony, opal, tigerseye and agate. The differences occur because of the way the crystals form under differing conditions of pressure, temperature and environment. Iron and other trace elements may stain the crystals
Salt minerals and sandstone form minerals that are somewhat softer. I cannot yet tell what the yellow color mineral is. You say it leaves a brown streak and scratches easily. I will look some more and answer again later.